The materials from which a building is constructed, as well as the systems and appliances installed there, can dramatically affect the amount of energy that a building will consume over its lifetime. To help customers compare the potential impact of one to another, efficiency ratings have been devised for many building components and energy systems.
A variety of energy ratings now abound, which can be confusing to the consumers these ratings were intended to help. We will try here to end that confusion by explaining each of the ratings systems listed below in as simple a way as possible. Also included is a Glossary of Efficiency Terms.
The materials from which a building is constructed can have a marked impact on the structure’s efficiency. Materials that allow a lot of heat to pass through them lower the overall efficiency level of the building. Conversely, materials that resist a significant amount of heat transference can help ensure greater efficiency. The degree to which a building component (such as a window or wall system) transfers heat is referred to as its U-value. The ability of an individual material (for instance, glass, wood, metal) to resist heat transfer is called its R-value.
Appliances and Equipment
When referring to the efficiency of an appliance or energy system, we are actually talking about how much energy that system must use to perform a certain amount of work. The higher its energy consumption per unit of output, the less efficient the system is. For example, an air conditioner that requires 750 watts of electricity to provide 6,000 Btu of cooling will be less efficient than one that can provide the same amount of cooling for only 500 watts. The most common ratings applied to energy systems are EER and SEER for most central cooling systems; COP for some heat pumps and chillers; HSPF for heat pumps in their heating modes; and AFUE for gas furnaces and boilers.
For more detailed explanations of the efficiency terms mentioned above, select any of the underlined topics below.
AFUE (annual fuel utilization efficiency): an efficiency rating that measures the efficiency with which gas and other fossil-fuel-burning furnaces and boilers use their primary fuel source over an entire heating season. It does not take into account the efficiency with which any component of the system, such as a furnace fan motor, uses electricity. AFUE is expressed as a percentage that indicates the average number of Btu worth of heating comfort provided by each Btu worth of gas (or other fossil fuel) consumed by the system. For instance, a gas furnace with an AFUE of 80% would provide 0.8 Btu of heat for every Btu of natural gas it burned.
When comparing efficiencies of various gas furnaces, it is important to consider the AFUE, not the steady-state efficiency. Steady-state refers to the efficiency of the unit when the system is running continuously, without cycling on and off. Since cycling is natural for the system over the course of the heating season, a steady state doesn’t give a true measurement of the system’s seasonal efficiency. For instance, gas furnaces with pilot lights have steady-state efficiencies of 78% to 80%, but seasonal efficiencies B AFUEs B closer to 65%.
Virtually all gas forced-air furnaces installed in this area from the 1950s through the early 1980s had AFUEs of around 65%. Today, federal law requires most gas furnaces manufactured and sold in the U.S. to have minimum AFUEs of 78%. (Mobile home furnaces and units with capacities under 45,000 Btu are permitted somewhat lower AFUEs.) Gas furnaces and boilers now on the market have AFUEs as high as 97%
Air infiltration: the introduction, usually unintentional, of unconditioned outdoor air into a mechanically heated and/or cooled building. Air infiltration can occur through any opening in the home’s structure, including seams where walls meet other walls, window or door frames, or chimneys; holes where wires or pipes penetrate walls, floors or ceilings/roofs; and between the loose-fitting meeting rails of double-hung windows or a door bottom and door threshold. It is one of the major causes of unwanted heat gain and loss and personal discomfort in buildings.
Btu (British thermal unit): a measurement of the energy in heat. It takes one Btu of heat to warm one pound of water by 1° Fahrenheit. Btu can be used either to define an air conditioner’s cooling capacity (i.e., the number of Btu of heat that can be removed by the system) or a furnace’s heating capacity (i.e., the number of Btu of heat that can be supplied by the system).
Caulk: a substance used to seal air infiltration points between two immovable objects, such as where exterior or interior wall surfaces meet window or door frames and at corners formed by siding. Most caulks come in tubes and are applied with the use of a special caulk “gun.”
Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs): a light “bulb” using fluorescent technology but designed to be used on many of the same fixtures traditionally used by standard incandescent “A” bulbs. They incorporate a small-diameter looped or swirled tube that is attached to a screw-in base. CFLs provide light levels comparable to 20- to 150-watt incandescent bulbs for 70% to 75% less energy. They also last 10 to 13 times longer than equivalent incandescent bulbs.
Conduction: the transfer of heat through solid objects such as glass, drywall, brick, and other building materials. The greater the difference between the outdoor and indoor temperatures, the faster conduction can occur and the more home a building can gain or lose.
Convection: the transfer of heat to or from a solid surface via a gas or liquid current. Where home heat loss and gain are concerned, heat convection is caused by air (gas) currents that carry heat from your body, furniture, interior walls and other warm objects to windows, floors, ceilings, exterior walls, and other cool surfaces.
COP(coefficient of performance): a measurement of a heat pump’s efficiency (in the heating mode) at a specific outdoor temperature – usually 47°F. A COP of 1 indicates that for each unit of energy being used, an equal amount of energy, in the form of heat) is being provided by the system. A heat pump with a COP of 3 would provide three times as much energy in heat as it consumes in electricity at an outdoor temperature of 47°F. COP is also sometimes used to measure the single temperature cooling efficiency of chillers.
This formula is stated:
|COP =||Btu of heat produced at 47°F
Btu worth of electricity used at 47°
For instance, let’s assume a heat pump uses 4000 watts of electricity to produce 42,000 Btu per hour (Btu/hr) of heat when it is 47°F outside. To determine its COP, you would first convert the 4000 watts of electrical consumption into its Btu/hr equivalent by multiplying 4000 times 3.413 ( the number of Btu in one watt-hour of electricity). Then you would divide your answer — 13,648 Btu/hr — into the 42,000 Btu/hr heat output. This would show your heat pump to have a 47°F COP of 3.08. This means that, for every Btu of electricity the system uses, it will produce a little more than three Btu of heat when the outdoor temperature is 47°F.
The second formula is most frequently used to determine chiller efficiency. Using this calculation method, you would div 3.516 by the number of kilowatts (kW) per ton used by the system. This formula is stated:
For example, a chiller that consumes 0.8 kW per ton of capacity would have a COP of 4.4 (3.516 divided by 0.8). On the other hand, the COP of a new, more efficient chiller, using as little as 0.5 kW per ton, would be greater than 7 (3.516 divided by 0.5).
Daylighting: the technique of using natural light from windows, skylights and other openings to supplement or replace a building’s artificial lighting system. When applied properly, daylighting can reduce a facility’s lighting costs. When applied improperly, however, it can not only lead to inappropriate light levels but can also raise the building’s cooling costs by introducing high levels of solar heat into the interior of the building.
Dedicated fixture: a lighting apparatus that is designed specifically for use with a particular type of lamp (bulb). For example, the increasing popularity of CFLs has led to the development of a growing number of fixtures – including torchieres, table lamps, ceiling drums, and recessed canisters – dedicated solely for use with compact fluorescents.
EER (energy efficiency ratio): a measurement of the energy required by a cooling system as it attempts to maintain indoor comfort at a specific outdoor temperature – usually 95°F. The term EER is most commonly used when referring to window air conditioners and geothermal heat pumps. EER equals the number of Btu per hour worth of cooling provided at the specified outdoor temperature divided by the number of watts used to provide that level of cooling.
The formula for calculating EER is:
Btu/hr of cooling at 95°
watts used at 95°
For instance, if you have a window air conditioner that draws 1500 watts of electricity to produce 12,000 Btu per hour of cooling when the outdoor temperature is 95°, it would have an EER of 8.0 (12,000 divided by 1500). A unit drawing 1200 watts to produce the same amount of cooling would have an EER of 10 and would be more energy efficient.
Using this same example, you can see how efficiency can affect a system’s operating economy. First, you’ll need to determine the total amount of electricity — measured in kilowatt-hours — the unit will consume over a period of time. (A kilowatt-hour is defined as 1,000 watts used for one hour. This is the measure by which your monthly utility bills are calculated.) To do this, let’s assume you operate your 8 EER window air conditioner — drawing 1500 watts at any given moment — for an average of 12 hours every day during the summer. At this rate, it will use 18,000 watt-hours, or 18 kilowatt-hours (kWh) each day, leading to a total consumption of 540 kWh over the course of a 30-day month. At a summer electric rate of 6.34¢ per kWh, it would cost you $34.24 to operate that window air conditioner each month. At the same time, a 1200-watt, 10 EER system, consuming 14.4 kilowatt-hours per day and 432 kWh per month, would cost you $27.39, a 20% savings over the less efficient model.
Efficiency: the degree to which a certain action or level of work can be effectively produced for the least expenditure of effort or fuel. For instance, a light bulb that uses 15 watts of electricity to produce 900 lumens of light would operate with much greater efficiency than one that required 60 watts to produce the same light level.
HSPF (heating seasonal performance factor): a measurement of an all-electric air-to-air heat pump’s efficiency (in the heating mode) over an entire season. HSPF is calculated by dividing the total number of Btus of heating provided over the entire season by the total number of watt-hours required to operate the system over the season.
The formula is written:
Btu of heat produced over the heating season
watt-hours of electricity used over the heating season
Most heat pumps installed in Springfield today have HSPFs in the 7.0 to 8.0 range, meaning they operate with seasonal efficiencies of anywhere from 205% to 234%. (To convert the HSPF number into a percentage, you just divide the HSPF by 3.414, the number of Btu in one watt-hour of electricity.) That means that, for every Btu-worth of energy they use over the entire heating season, these systems will put out anywhere from 2.05 to 2.34 Btu of heat. Compare this to electric furnaces, which have nominal efficiencies of 100% (for each Btu worth of electricity, they put out one Btu of heat), or new gas furnaces, which have efficiency ratings of about 80% to 97% (for each Btu worth of gas, they put out 0.8 to 0.97 Btu of heat).
NOTE: When comparing energy systems that use different primary fuel sources with different costs per Btu, it is important that you understand that higher operating efficiency is not necessarily equivalent to a better operating economy. Although an electric heat pump might work with greater efficiency than a gas furnace, it won’t necessarily be more economical to run due to the pricing difference between the two fuel sources.
Insulation: a product that inhibits conductive and convective heat transfer. Some materials are naturally better insulators than others because they contain more “dead air” pockets. These pockets of trapped gas help to slow the movement of heat. However, if processed properly, virtually any product, including glass, cotton, paper, and plastic, can be used to make insulation.
Internal Heat Gain: the accumulation of heat produced by a building’s energy systems and appliances and occupants. Depending on the number of occupants and the type and number of energy systems used during the day, it’s not unusual for internal heat gain to account for 20% of a home’s total summer cooling load.
Kilowatt-hour (kWh): 1000 watts used for one hour – or any combination of energy multiplied by time that is equivalent to that rate of electrical consumption, such as one watt used for 1000 hours, 10 watts used for 100 hours, or 50 watts used for 20 hours. For example, a 100-watt light bulb left on for five hours each day would consume one kWh every two days. Kilowatt-hour is the primary measure on which U.S. electric companies base most customer billing. CWLP residential customers pay an average of 5.5¢ to 6¢ per kWh of electricity used.
Low-e: refers to a material designed to reduce the amount of radiant heat that can be transferred through glass or other translucent window coverings. Low-e (which stands for low-emissivity) coatings or films have the ability to re-radiate a high percentage of heat back toward its source. In summer Low-E windows can be effective in reducing the amount of solar heat that can enter a house, and in winter they can reduce the amount of furnace-generated heat that can be lost to the outdoors.
Payback period: the amount of time it takes to achieve a full return on investment. For instance, if a high-efficiency air conditioner would cost you $300 more to purchase than a lower-efficiency model but would save you $100 a year in operating costs, your payback period on the extra $300 investment would be three years.
Radiation: a method of heat transfer in which heat is transmitted from surface to surface via infrared waves. Radiant heat warms the surfaces it touches without increasing the temperature of the air through which it travels. All warm bodies radiate infrared energy.
Return on investment (ROI): the annual rate at which an investment earns income. It is calculated by dividing the annual earnings by the investment. For instance, a bank savings account paying $3 per year per $100 investment has an ROI of 3% ($3 / $100). An efficiency investment’s ROI comes not from money paid to you, but rather from money saved by you on your energy bills.
R-value: a measurement of a material’s ability to resist heat transfer. Insulation products are rated according to the R-value. The higher its R-value, the greater the product’s ability to resist heat flow will be.
Some materials are more resistant to heat transfer than others, giving them higher R-values. One of the best ways to enhance the product’s R-value is to increase the amount of gas (including air) inside or immediately surrounding it. For instance, the glass of a single-pane window has virtually no R-value, but the thin film of air that normally exists on either side of the glass gives the window an R-value of about 0.83. Adding a second pane of glass and sealing the space between the panes will increase the thickness of one of the insulating gas layers, thereby more than doubling the window’s R-value.
Another example of how the presence of dead-air spaces affect a product’s R-value can be seen with wood. Hardwoods, like oak, typically have an insulating value of R-1 per inch of thickness. However, softer woods, such as pine, might have R-values twice as high due to their greater number of air-filled pores.
Products developed especially for the purpose of impeding unwanted heat transfer are called insulation. Insulation can be made of a variety of materials, including old newspapers and wood fibers, glass fibers, and synthetic foams. It can also come in a variety of configurations, including soft blankets, rigid boards, or fluffy granular loose-fill, but what they all have in common, is their abundance of air-filled pores or pockets.
The actual R-value of insulation products can vary greatly, depending on their composition and form. The least resistant and least common are perlite and vermiculite loose-fills, at R-2.2 to R-2.7 per inch of thickness; the most resistant are polyisocyanurate rigid boards, at R-7 per inch of thickness. Fiberglass blankets and cellulose loose-fills, two of the most common residential insulations have R-values of 3.1 to 3.7 per inch.
SEER (seasonal energy efficiency ratio): a measurement of how energy efficient a central cooling system can operate over the course of an entire cooling season. This term is most often applied to central air-to-air heat pumps (in the cooling mode) and air conditioners. SEER is expressed as the dividend of the number of Btu of cooling provided over the season divided by the total number of watt-hours the system consumes. Federal law requires all central split systems now made and sold in the United States to have minimum SEERs of 10. Effective January 2015, the minimum for most systems will increase to 14.
SEER is calculated based on the total amount of cooling (in Btu) the system will provide over the entire season divided by the total number of watt-hours it will consume:
seasonal Btu of cooling
seasonal watt-hours used
By federal law, every central split cooling system manufactured or sold in the U.S. today must have a seasonal energy efficiency ratio of at least 10.0.
Settled density: the amount (depth) of insulation remaining after it has had a chance to settle. This term is most often applied to loose-fill insulations—particularly those made of cellulose. To ensure loose-fill cellulose insulation will maintain its desired insulating value (r-value) once it has settled, you will need to install it to a depth that is 20% to 25% deeper than your settled density r-value actually calls for.
Solar Gain: heat that builds up inside a structure as a result of sunlight that enters through transparent or translucent surfaces, such as windows, and is converted to heat after striking other surfaces inside the building. In summer, solar gain can cause as much as 50% of the interior heat gain in a home.
Thermostat Setback: an intentional effort to control building energy consumption by manually or automatically controlling thermostat settings according to the amount of cooling or heat that is needed at any given time of the day or night.
U-value: the measurement of how readily heat can flow through glass, brick, drywall and other building materials. U-values, which are expressed in decimals(e.g., U-0.166), are the opposite of R-values. The higher the U-value, the less efficient the building material will be. The lower a material’s U-value, the higher its R-value will be.
To determine the R-value of a product for which the U-value is given, you first convert the U-value to its equivalent fraction and then invert it. For instance, the equivalent fraction of U-0.166 would be 166/1000 or 1/6. This inverts to 6/1 or 6, giving you an R-value of 6.
For most consumers, U-value is likely to be of concern only when shopping for new windows, where efficiency is frequently stated in terms of U-value rather than R-value.
Vapor barrier: a material designed to resist the migration of moisture through a wall or other building components. As water vapor in the air moves from a warmer to a cooler part of the building it can settle and condense on cooler building components, such as rafters, beams, and walls, eventually causing those components to mildew, rust or rot. Vapor barriers, which are impermeable to water vapor migration, help to protect against this possibility. The most common vapor barriers are made of plastic, but other materials, including oil paint, can also serve the purpose.
Weatherstripping: a product designed to seal the cracks that exist between two moving parts or one moving and one stationary part of windows, doors and other movable building components. Weatherstripping is used to improve a building’s energy efficiency by preventing the unintentional entry of unconditioned outdoor air.
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